FAQ

The NPK’s of Growing

(N) NITROGEN

Nitrogen is essential for plant growth. Nitrogen is a part of every living cell. The two forms of nitrogen which plants take up are in the ammonia (NH4) and nitrate (N03) ion forms. Most agronomic crops take up most of their nitrogen in the nitrate ion form. Plants will utilize N in the (NH4) ion form if present and available to the plant. Lack of nitrogen and chlorophyll means that plants cannot utilize sunlight as an energy source to carry on essential functions such as nutrient uptake. Research has proven foliar or leaf applications of nitrogen is one form of application that can supplement a plants nitrogen requirements during the growing cycle.

  • Nitrogen is necessary for chlorophyll synthesis and as a part of the chlorophyll molecule is involved in photosynthesis.
  • Nitrogen is also a component of amino acids.
  • Nitrogen is needed for growth of plants.

From the Greek words “nitron genes” meaning “nitre” and “forming” and the Latin word “nitrum”. Discovered in Scotland by Daniel Rutherford in 1772.

(P) PHOSPHORUS

Phosphate is a very important plant nutrient (macro-nutrient) needed for the plant to complete its normal production cycle. The highest level of P in young plants is found in tissue at the growing stage. As plants mature most of the P moves into the flower and then to the seed or fruit.

  • Phosphorus is needed for photosynthesis.
  • Phosphorus is necessary for plant respiration.
  • Phosphorus is essential for energy storage and transfer.
  • Phosphorus is needed for cell division.
  • Phosphorus is necessary for cell enlargement.
  • Phosphorus is essential for several other plant processes.

From the Greek word “phosphoros” meaning “bringer of light” (an ancient name for the planet Venus?). Discovered in Germany by Hennig Brand in 1669.

(K) POTASSIUM

An important function of Potassium is it’s influence in efficient water use. It helps in the process of opening and closing of plant leaf pores, called the stomata. Potassium is found in cell walls which surround stomata. Adequate amounts of Potassium can increase stress conditions on plants during drought conditions. Potassium is also responsible for producing quality crops.

  • Potassium is essential for protein synthesis.
  • Potassium is important in the breakdown of carbohydrates, providing energy for plants.
  • Potassium helps to control ionic balance.
  • Potassium is important in the translocation of minerals.
  • Potassium helps plants to overcome effects of disease.
  • Potassium is essential in the fruit formation stage.
  • Potassium helps improve shelf life of fruits and vegetables.
  • Potassium is involved in the activation of more than 60 enzymes which regulate the rates of major plant growth reactions.

From the English word “potash” and the Arabic word “qali” meaning alkali (“K” comes from the Latin word “kalium”). Discovered in England by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807.

NPK INDUSTRIES

1. What is frequency?
A: In modern times, the discovery of electricity brought about the concept of electromagnetic actions. Since then science has established that electrical magnetic energy exists in all life. Nikola Tesla a pioneer in electromagnetism said, “There is no thing endowed with life in all this world that does not sway in its turn. Whenever action is born from force, though it be infinitesimal, the cosmic balance is upset.” “Stabilized Frequency Technology,” by NPK is the only spray product with this technology in a stabilized form for consumer use.

2. What do NPK products contain?
A:
PM Wash – consists of frequency adjusted water specific to the intended action.
Power Wash – consists of frequency adjusted water specific to the intended action.
Mighty Wash – consists of frequency adjusted water specific to the intended action
and trace amounts of naturally derived plant extracts.

3. Mighty Wash leaves a small amount of residual on leaves. What is this? Should I do anything about it?
A: Mighty Wash does leave a slight tasteless, odorless residual. This is natural, but can be washed off easily with a follow up application of Power Wash.

4. I heard Power Wash will reactivate previously applied sprays. Is this true?
A: Yes. Power Wash will break apart and reactivate any previously applied spray including Mighty Wash as well as cleaning the plants surface of any residue. Due to the nature of Power Wash your plant is left clean and able to photosynthesize at its optimal rate.

2012 © NPK Industries, LLC. Website by Conscious Web Design

General Hydroponics Information
________________________________________

I am new to hydroponics. What do I need to start?

Answer: Hydroponics is a fun and satisfying hobby that is both challenging and rewarding. To start you will need a hydroponic system, hydroponic nutrients, an inert hydroponic media (may be dependant on type of hydroponic system), a light source (natural or artificial), time and plants.
________________________________________

What is hydroponics?

Answer: Visit our What Is Hydroponics? page to find out more.
________________________________________

Where can I grow with the hydroponic method?

Answer: Anywhere. Indoors, in a greenhouse as well as outdoors. Any plant can be grown with hydroponics, though some are more delicate than others. If there is enough light for the plant to grow, you can probably bet somebody has grown it using hydroponics.
________________________________________

What is aeroponics?

Answer: Aeroponics is a method of growing in which oxygen is infused into the nutrient solution, allowing the roots to absorb nutrients faster and more easily. This facilitates rapid growth resulting in fantastic yields.
________________________________________

Is hydroponics organic?

Answer: There is a huge popular debate about the value of “organic” fertilizers and methods. Many people would like to apply “organics” to hydroponics. Currently accepted organic fertilizer components are dependent upon organisms in the soil to convert the “organic” materials into a useable form for plants. In hydroponics we provide the minerals required for plant growth directly, completely eliminating the need for soil and soil organisms. The result is much higher growth rates and yields, and better crop quality than organic methods can achieve. For more information, refer to this article on Organics and Hydroponics.
________________________________________

Why is growing hydroponically better than growing in soil?

Answer: Hydroponic produce is cleaner than its soil grown counterpart, and the grower has the ability to adjust the nutrient feed for maximal growth and yield in the shortest time.
________________________________________

How does the taste of hydroponic produce compare with soil-grown produce?

Answer: Hydroponic produce frequently exceeds soil grown produce in terms of flavor and nutrition. This is because all of the nutrients required by the plant are immediately available when the plant needs them.
________________________________________

Would you please explain in a little more detail, the various elements required for plant growth?

Answer: Certainly. About 160 years ago scientists determined that ten elements were required for plant growth. Three of these ten were provided by air and water: carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). The others, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) were obtained by plants from the soil or other growing medium. Six additional elements have been determined essential for plant growth: manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), molybdenum (Mb) and chlorine (C1). These six also are generally supplied through the growing medium. The Flora series of nutrients contain all of these elements.

Hydroponic System Questions
________________________________________

What is a good inexpensive hydroponic system for the first time user?

Answer: Our WaterFarm, PowerGrower and EcoGrower are all good systems for a beginner. Nearly any plant can be grown, and if you later decide you would like to have some additional units, they can be linked together and expanded with our controller.
________________________________________

What is the best system for starting cuttings?

Answer: Our RainForest Series does an excellent job for starting cuttings.
________________________________________

Which is the best system for growing smaller plants?

Answer: You can use any of our systems, though the AeroFlo produces the most rapid and dramatic results.
________________________________________

What is the best system for growing tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers?

Answer: These plants have longer growing periods and need enough space for adequate root development. Our best systems for these crops are the WaterFarm, PowerGrower, EuroGrower and the EcoGrower.
________________________________________

Can I turn my system off at night to conserve energy? Should I run it continuously or cycle it at intervals?

Answer: All systems can be left off at night once the plant roots are long enough to reach the nutrient level in the reservoir. Longer cycles depend on the type of system you have:

AeroFlo systems: The cycle can be set to run continuously during the day and coming on once or twice during the night on 15 to 30 minute intervals.

EuroGrower systems: Set the timer to come on for .5 hour/ off 1.5 hour during the daylight cycle once the plant has a good root system. These systems use coco peat which holds moisture and nutrients in the root zone.

WaterFarm, PowerGrower and EcoGrower systems: Set the timer to come on for 1 hour/ off 1 hour during the daylight cycle.

RainForest systems: These units are run continuously, especially if you are trying to root cuttings. If you are growing plants, they can be shut off in the evening once the roots have grown into the nutrient solution.

All of our systems can be run 24 hours a day 7 days a week for optimal results, power conservation is the only reason to cycle watering.
________________________________________

How does the Dutch Pot system differ from the WaterFarm system?

Answer: Each WaterFarm, PowerGrower and EcoGrower can be used as a stand alone system, or several can be connected together. There is a growing chamber and a nutrient reservoir for each unit. They use an air pump to deliver nutrients and have expanded clay pebbles as the medium.

The Dutch Pot (EuroGrower) is a single chambered system which is drip fed by an in-line pump. Drainage from all units returns to a single reservoir. In the Dutch Pot, smaller grade media such as coco peat may be used without fear of particles entering the nutrient stream and clogging pumps.
________________________________________

What is the Controller, and what does it do?

Answer: The Controller is a large external nutrient reservoir, which can supply make-up nutrient to as many as eight WaterFarm or PowerGrower modules. It provides an additional supply of nutrient solution as the plants move into their rapid growth phase. The larger Texas Controller can be used to supply up to 12 WaterFarm or PowerGrower modules, or it can be used in conjunction with the RainForest or EcoGrower systems.
________________________________________

Can you recommend a simple solution for keeping growing media out of drains?

Answer: The General Hydroponics’ CocoTek Mats were designed for this purpose. The CocoTek mats can be cut to fit any application and come in two sizes, 4’x8’x1/4″ or 4’x4’x1″.
________________________________________

The hoses on my WaterFarm have gotten dirty. What’s the best way to unclog the system?

Answer: The easiest way to clean the drip ring and pumping column is to soak the pieces in hot water. You can add 1 Tablespoon bleach per Gallon as a cleanser. After soaking, plug one end of the drip ring and run hot water into the other end. This forces water out of the drip holes and removes any deposits. Some people keep an extra pumping column and drip ring that they swap out during every cleaning. The used pieces are soaked in bleach solution, rinsed thoroughly, dried, and stored for the next cleaning.
________________________________________

Why is my WaterFarm or PowerGrower not dripping from the drip ring?

Answer: Make sure the y connector for the 1/4″ air line and 1/2″ drip line (both are connected by the y connector and are the pumping column assembly) is on the bottom of the reservoir in the nutrient solution. There should be a 1/2″ drip line to connect the drip ring tee to and a 1/4″ air line to connect the 1/4″ air line to coming out of the top of the pumping column support tube. If this part is correctly installed, check the drip ring, pumping column and y connector for debris and clogging. If the system still will not drip correctly call or email GH.
________________________________________

How do I deal with algae build up in my hydroponic system?

Answer: The best method is prevention. If you keep the solution away from light, i.e. keep the lids closed and all openings sealed, you can prevent algae from growing. If you already have algae in the system you can remove it with a brush, or use hydrogen peroxide (3ml of 3% H2O2 per gallon of solution) to remove it. If there are particles floating in the nutrient solution, be sure to flush the reservoir and growing chamber with ample water, and then start with a new batch of nutrient. If the problem is severe, make sure you have the algae completely flushed out to avoid the risk of clogging some of the flow lines in the system.
________________________________________

Is there a way to get parts for old GH systems?

Answer: Please first check our parts and supplies page to see if we have your replacement part listed. If you do not see the parts you are looking for please email or call General Hydroponics with the specific parts needed or a description of the parts and GH will let you know if the parts are available and a give you price if available.
________________________________________

Are the plastic components used in General Hydroponics systems food grade safe?

Answer: Yes, all of our plastic parts are food grade safe. No chemicals will leach into growing plants. The plastics are also UV stable under artificial lighting and natural lighting.
________________________________________

Do I need a humidome for my RainForest system?

Answer: No. The Vortex sprayer, included in the RainForest 66, 318 and 236, supplies an ultra fine mist of water, oxygen and nutrient in just the right amount for cuttings to survive until roots form. As with the Vortex sprayer, the pumping set up used in the RainForest 36 will also supply the right amount of water, oxygen and nutrient for cuttings to survive until roots form, no humidome is needed.

Nutrient And Flora Questions
________________________________________

Why are there three parts to the General Hydroponics Flora Series nutrients?

Answer: The concept behind the Flora-series is simple: Different kinds of plants have significantly different nutrient needs, and these needs change during each plants growth cycle. By using different combinations of FloraGro, FloraBloom and FloraMicro, the grower is able to fulfill the exact needs of the plant at each stage in the plants life cycle. As the crop grows, the grower is able to precisely adapt the nutrient formulation to meet the crops changing requirements.
________________________________________

Can you explain the purpose of each component of the Flora Series?

Answer: In hydroponics, the plant roots are constantly provided with all the water, oxygen and nutrients they need. The challenge for the grower is to keep up with the plants needs, and to avoid damaging it with either excesses or deficiencies of minerals. As a general rule, a plant consumes more nitrogen during the formative or vegetative stage, and more phosphorus, potassium and magnesium as it flowers. Throughout its growth cycle, the plant will also consume calcium, sulfur and micro nutrients such as iron, manganese, boron, molybdenum and copper. FloraMicro, the foundation or “building block” of the Flora Series system, provides nitrogen and calcium as well as trace minerals, which are essential for a comprehensive hydroponic plant diet. By adding FloraGro to FloraMicro, the plant will receive additional nitrogen and potassium, which stimulates structural and foliar growth. To stimulate flower and fruit development, FloraBloom is added to provide the necessary phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulfur.
________________________________________

What is a general purpose nutrient recommendation?

Answer: The proper ratio of each Flora Series nutrient depends on the crop and the stage of growth (look on the label for specific recommendations for different crops). However, as a rule of thumb we use the “1-2-3” ratio:

For seeds, cuttings, or delicate seedlings- use 1/4 tsp. of each nutrient to 1 gallon water

For the vegetative stage of growth- use 3 tsp. FloraGro to 2 tsp. FloraMicro to 1 tsp. FloraBloom to 1 gallon water

For late vegetative to pre-bloom stage- use 2 tsp. of each nutrient to 1 gallon water

For bloom initiation to ripening stage- use 1 tsp. FloraGro to 2 tsp. FloraMicro to 3 tsp. FloraBloom to 1 gallon water.
________________________________________

How do I mix the Flora Series?

Answer: Always start with a reservoir filled with water, then add the concentrated nutrients one by one.

Never mix the nutrients together in their concentrated form, as this will cause nutrient “lock-out” making some minerals unavailable. It is best to begin by adding FloraMicro, stirring well, and then adding FloraGro and/or FloraBloom. If both FloraGro and FloraBloom are used, add one, stir well, then add the other.

Be sure to watch Gen Hydro’s Jesse walk you through the process of mixing Flora Series here.
________________________________________

When the reservoir level begins to drop, should I top it off with fresh water or nutrient solution?

Answer: If you drain, clean and remix the nutrients every 7 to 10 days, it’s okay to top off with fresh water daily. As plants consume nutrients and water, the nutrient strength in the hydroponic reservoir will change. GENERALLY, nutrient strength should run between 800 to 1500 parts per million (ppm). Your exact ppm requirements will depend on your circumstances and style of growing. We strongly suggest that you measure ppm, you will need to purchase a nutrient testing device and start monitoring your nutrient solution. We use meters with a “sodium chloride” scale. Before using your meter, calibrate it with General Hydroponics Standard Reference Solution. Then, measure the ppm in the solution. If you find that it is greater than what you want, add water to bring the indicated ppm down to a safe level. If you find the ppm is too low, add nutrient solution to bring the indicated ppm up to its desired level. Your water quality will affect your final readings. When in doubt, remember that it is always better to apply too little nutrient than too much. Unless you know the specific ppm tolerance level for the plant you are growing, it is best to keep the nutrient solution between 800 and 1500 ppm.
________________________________________

Between cleanings, how often should I check the reservoir level?

Answer: Fast growing crops consume large amounts of nutrients and water so it is important to keep an eye on the reservoir every couple of days. Also consider the size of the plants(bigger plants, more water consumption) and how warm and dry the environment.(hotter, more transpiration).
________________________________________

Do I ever need to drain the reservoir and refill with fresh water and nutrient solution?

Answer: Yes. The reservoir should be drained and rinsed every 7-14 days, depending upon plant size and nutrient usage. It should definitely be drained and cleaned whenever you change the nutrient ratio formula. It is also a good idea to rinse off the growing medium (Expanded Clay Pebbles, CocoTek Coir) each time the reservoir is cleaned. Plant waste will tend to accumulate on the growing medium.
________________________________________

What is the shelf life of the Flora Series nutrients?

Answer: Properly stored (cool environment, out of sunlight, sealed container) they should last indefinitely.
________________________________________

What is the shelf life of the dry nutrient lines?

Answer: Our dry nutrient formulations should be stored in a dry cool environment. Remember to seal the bag and replace the lid on the container. If stored in this manner, they should last indefinitely. Avoid leaving this product in direct sunlight or warm humid environments.
________________________________________

What is the shelf life of the FloraNova series nutrients?

Answer: Properly stored (cool environment, out of sunlight, sealed container) the FloraNova series should last up to one year without any problems.
________________________________________

Do I use MaxiGrow and MaxiBloom at the same time?

Answer: Yes and no. The Maxi series is designed to use one part at a time, but in a time of transition it may be beneficial to mix the two at half strength each (makes a full strength nutrient solution). Use MaxiGro in the vegetative stage and MaxiBloom in the fruiting/flowering stage.

Note: If your plant is not fruiting or flowering plant, MaxiGro is all that you will need to use.

For further information, refer to our Maxi Series feed chart.
________________________________________

Do I use FloraNova Grow and FloraNova Bloom at the same time?

Answer: Yes and no. The FloraNova series is designed to use one part at a time, but in a time of transition it may be beneficial to mix the two at half strength each (makes a full strength nutrient solution). Use FloraNova Grow in the vegetative stage and FloraNova Bloom in the fruiting/flowering stage.

Note: If your plant is not fruiting or flowering plant, FloraNova Grow is all that you will need to use.

For further information, refer to out FloraNova feed chart.
________________________________________

Can I foliar feed with GH nutrients?

Answer: Of course. Make sure you use a weaker nutrient solution than you would for root feeding. Avoid foliar feeding in the heat of the day and under excessive sunlight. Generally, the best times to foliar feed are in the early morning and late afternoon. Make sure you spray the undersides of the leaves. This is where the stomata or “lungs of the plant” are located, and where maximum absorption occurs.
________________________________________

Can GH nutrients be used in soil?

Answer: Absolutely! All of our nutrient blends contain the necessary elements for plant growth. Start with the formula ratios identified on the label for the specific plant or crop you are growing, and then adjust and experiment until you find the right formula for your specific need.

For further information, refer to our Drain to Waste feed charts.
________________________________________

Is the Flora Series organic?

Answer: First, what is or is not “organic” is the subject of intense debate. In the United States, there are numerous definitions of “organic”, many of which differ significantly. Each state has its own regulations for labeling produce as “organic”. Additionally, there are 36 non-governmental organizations, which can “certify” produce as organic. Now only crops grown from unrefined minerals are recognized as “organic”. The trouble is unrefined minerals do not dissolve well for hydroponic use and some of these unrefined minerals contain quantities of impurities, some of which are toxic to plants. For that reason, FloraBloom, FloraGro, and FloraMicro are made from high quality refined minerals. This ensures high quality crop production, but prevents the crop from being considered “organic”.
________________________________________

Is FloraNova series organic?

Answer: FloraNova Grow and Bloom contain 3-5% organic substances creating the marriage between mineral and organic gardening.
________________________________________

Can you use more than the recommended dose of KoolBloom at any time during the flowering or fruiting cycle?

Answer: No, using too much KoolBloom will actually cause all blooms and possibly the plant to deteriorate and die. KoolBloom works on the premise that the plant is shocked into mass flowering. Shocking the plant too much will cause rotting and in extreme cases death.
________________________________________

When is KoolBloom best used? How much?

Answer: KoolBloom can safely be used three to four weeks before the end of the plants life cycle. Use only the recommended dose of 1/4 tsp per gallon (1.5 g / gallon). This will increase the ppm by approximately 200 ppm (0.4 mS).

For further information, refer to the feed charts for your GH program.
________________________________________

What nutrient strength should I use KoolBloom with?

Answer: Use a less aggressive nutrient strength in the range of 1000-1200 ppm (2-2.4 mS) before adding the KoolBloom.

pH Dynamics And Adjustment
________________________________________

What is pH?

Answer: pH is the measure of acidity/alkalinity of a solution.
________________________________________

Can you explain this in a little more detail?

Answer: Specifically, pH is a measure of the hydronium ion H3O+. It is based on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. “Pure” water has a pH of 7.0. If the pH is less than 7, the solution is acid. If the pH is greater than 7 it is alkaline. Because the scale is logarithmic and not linear, a pH of 6 indicates ten times more H protons than a pH of 7, and a pH of 5 indicates 10 times more protons than a pH of 6.
________________________________________

What pH is best for growing plants hydroponically?

Answer: The ideal pH range for most hydroponic crops is between 5.5 and 6.5.
________________________________________

How does pH level affect plant growth?

Answer: pH is important because it affects availability and absorption of several of the 16 atomic elements needed for plant growth. Maximum absorption of these elements is found at pH readings 5.5 to 6.5. When pH falls below this range many of the macro elements (N, P, K, etc) have less availability, and absorption of the micro nutrients can reach toxic levels.
________________________________________

How do you change the pH?

Answer: pH is adjusted by using an acid to lower it or an alkali to raise it. General Hydroponics’ pH Down and pH Up are designed for this purpose. Many acids and alkalis are extremely corrosive and dangerous, so care should be used if you are not using a product labeled for hydroponic use.
________________________________________

What if I can not get any pH Down, and my system is running high?

Answer: Short-term solutions include citric acid (which degrades in solution) or sulfuric acid made for car batteries. Make sure this does not include any lead, and be very careful with this acid. Vinegar will also work, but generally, the effects are short term.
________________________________________

How often should I check my pH level?

Answer: When first starting out it is a good idea to measure the pH of your water every day, until you get a feel for your system. Measure your water and then add your nutrients. Within an hour check the pH and adjust accordingly. Repeat this process until pH stabilizes. The liquid Flora Series has special pH buffers to help maintain a desirable pH. It is a good idea to note how much water, nutrients and pH modifiers are needed to obtain the desired values. After several “start- ups” you can generally get a feel for how much acid or base to use for your situation. Frequently pH stays within a desirable range for a considerable time, and then rapidly rises or falls to an extreme. This is usually an indication of the need to do a nutrient change. If you are using hard water, pH has the tendency to climb above 7.5. Sometimes this can be neutralized with acid, though one might consider adding a reverse osmosis unit in an extreme case.
________________________________________

How much pH Up/Down is needed per gallon?

Answer: Start out with one milliliter per gallon. Wait 15 To 30 minutes, and test your water again. Frequently you will only need 1 to 2 ml of pH Up/Down per gallon of water. You may need additional pH Up/Down if you have hard water. The General Hydroponics Flora Series is pH buffered to facilitate keeping the pH in a favorable range.
________________________________________

The pH in my system drops below 4 every few days after cleaning and refilling. How do I increase the pH and stabilize it?

Answer: The easiest way is to continue adding pH Up. This is generally fine because the additional elements that are added are potassium ions. Potassium is frequently the highest element in hydroponic nutrient solutions. Sometimes pH crashes because of the presence of a large amount of microbial activity in the nutrient solution. This is usually a result of poor maintenance of the system due to infrequent nutrient changes or other stresses. The best way to avoid this scenario is to keep a clean system with adequate nutrition.

Questions About Growing Media
________________________________________

What are Expanded Clay Pebbles?

Answer: Expanded clay pebbles are used in hydroponics as a medium to support the plant. They are chemically inert, do not affect pH and provide excellent drainage. They are made from a special type of clay, which is heated to a high temperature causing it to pop like popcorn.
________________________________________

What is Coco Peat?

Answer: Coco peat is an organic medium made from coconuts, frequently used in both hydroponics and seed sowing mixes. Its advantages are that it is lightweight, relatively inert and comes from a sustainable source. However, coco peat comes in various grades, and can actually be detrimental to plant growth if it contains salt-water residues from poor processing.
________________________________________

What is Rockwool?

Answer: Rockwool is a substrate made by melting rock, extruding it in threads and then pressing it into sponge-like blocks.
________________________________________

What are CocoTek products made from?

Answer: CocoTek products are made from all organic sources. Coconut fibers are spun together with natural tree rubber to form the popular CocoTek products.
________________________________________

What is the difference between Expanded Clay Pebbles and Coco Peat? What are their applications?

Answer: Both Expanded Clay Pebbles and Coco peat are pH neutral media. Expanded Clay Pebbles provide free drainage and aeration, while coco peat provides moisture retention and the ability to hold onto a small amount of nutrients.
________________________________________

Do the rooting media (Pebbles, Rockwool, Coco Peat, etc.) change the way nutrients are used?

Answer: They can. Rinse the growing media (especially important when using Rockwool) before using it. We suggest you check the nutrient solution pH and ppm(see above) and adjust the solution accordingly.
________________________________________

How big does a brick of Coco Peat become?

Answer: One brick expands to approximately two and a half gallons.
________________________________________

Can you recommend a simple solution for keeping particles of smaller growing media from getting into my nutrient solution?

Answer: General Hydroponic’s CocoTek Mats were designed to do just that. CocoTek Mats also create a unique air and moisture balance around the net cup. The CocoTek Mats come in two sizes, 4’x8’x1/4″ or 4’x4’x1″, that can be cut to fit any application.
________________________________________

How do I use Rapid Rooter plugs for cuttings?

Answer: Rapid Rooters work best when in a 50-cell tray. Place a cutting in the small hole on the top of the Rapid Rooter plug enough where the cutting will stand upright on its own. Place the tray under proper lighting, then once multiple roots pop out the cutting can then be transplanted into a hydroponic system or directly into soil.
________________________________________

How do I use Rapid Rooter plugs for starting seeds?

Answer: Rapid Rooters work best when in a 50-cell tray. Drop the proper amount of seeds in the small hole on the top of the Rapid Rooter plug and place the tray in a dark area until sprouting occurs. Then move tray into a lighted area and grow until seedlings are large enough to transplant into a hydroponic system or directly into soil.
________________________________________

Do I need to soak my Rapid Rooter plugs?

Answer: For optimal results soak Rapid Rooter plugs in pure water with a light blooming formula (200ppm or 0.4mS), then place back in tray and follow procedure for cuttings or sees.
________________________________________

Do I need to water my Rapid Rooter plugs?

Answer: Do not water Rapid Rooter plugs unless they are drying out. The plugs are designed to hold the proper amount of moisture and oxygen that is optimal for starting seeds and rooting cuttings.

Questions About Water
________________________________________

How important is water quality in hydroponics?

Answer: Water containing too much calcium and magnesium (called “total Hardness”) may create serious problems. Contact your municipal water supplier who can provide you with an analysis of your water supply. If you are using well water, many laboratories can provide you with an analysis if you send them a sample. If the dissolved salts in your water supply measure 200 ppm or more, we strongly recommend that you obtain a water analysis to determine calcium content. Excessive calcium is the main factor in determining if your water is hard. If an analysis of your water supply reveals that the Calcium content of your water supply is greater than 70 ppm (mg/liter) you should use Hardwater FloraMicro. Hardwater FloraMicro provides rapidly growing plants with a combination of chelated micro nutrients uniquely formulated for hardwater conditions. Other options are to collect rainwater, install a reverse osmosis filtration system, or use purified water. Do not use mineral or “spring” water, which can unbalance the nutrient solution, or even be toxic to plants.
________________________________________

My water is chlorinated, Is this a problem?

Answer: Chlorine is highly volatile; it evaporates as soon as it hits the air. By the time the nutrient solution reaches the roots, the chlorine is gone.
________________________________________

I understand the roots also need oxygen. How do they get it?

Answer: In a properly functioning hydroponic unit, the roots receive oxygen from the air, which surrounds them, as well as from the oxygen, which is dissolved in the nutrient solution. The proper medium can play an important role in this process.
________________________________________

What about water temperature?

Answer: Temperature of the nutrient solution should be in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit (18 to 26 degrees Celsius). Before adding water to your reservoir, it is a good idea to allow it to come to the same temperature as the water in the reservoir. Plants do not like rapid temperature changes, especially in the root zone. Aquarium heaters can be used to warm the nutrient solution in the winter, and look for “chillers” to cool the solution in the summer if high temperature becomes a problem.
TDS, EC, PPM, Millisiemens – Nutrient Strength And Measurement
________________________________________

What is the best way to calibrate a TDS or EC meter?

Answer: Standard reference solutions are used. The bottles are marked with the conductivity (EC) value in milliSiemens/cm and the corresponding ppm values for sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) solutions, and sometimes for a “442” reference mixture. The conductivity of sodium chloride solutions is close to that of hydroponic mineral nutrients, so a “1000-ppm NaCl” standard is most frequently used when calibrating the meter for hydroponic solutions. You should follow the calibration instructions in the manual, which the manufacturer of your meter provided.
________________________________________

What does a TDS or EC meter measure?

Answer: The electrical conductivity (EC) of your nutrient results from motion of mineral ions when the meter applies an electrical voltage. The ppM value of a sodium chloride solution happens to be very close to half of its conductivity value (in milliSiemens/cm), so many meters display the conductivity as an equivalent NaCl amount
________________________________________

What does the term Parts Per Million (PPM) mean?

Answer: It is a common unit for measuring the concentration of elements in the nutrient solution. One ppm is one part by weight of the mineral in one million parts of solution.
________________________________________

How do I convert between TDS and EC readings?

Answer: To obtain an approximate sodium chloride TDS value, multiply the EC reading (in milliSiemens/cm) by 1000 and divide by 2.

To get an EC value, multiply the ppm reading by 2 and divide by 1000.

Thus, if your EC is 1:

1*1000/2= 500 ppm.

And if your ppm is 500:

500*2/1000= 1 EC
________________________________________

Is it better to use an EC or a TDS meter?

Answer: If you have plant nutrient recommendations in EC units, an EC meter is convenient. If your plant nutrient recommendations are in ppm values, a sodium chloride TDS calibration is easier to use.
________________________________________

Using the 3-2-1 Flora Series mixture, approximately what TDS or EC readings should I expect?

Nutrient EC (milliSiemens/cm) TDS meter (NaCl standard)
3:2:1 2.3-2.5 1350-1450
2:2:2 2.2-2.4 1300-1400
1:2:3 2.1-2.3 1250-1350

________________________________________

Why is conductivity of the nutrient important?

Answer: Conductivity is a measure of the strength of the nutrient solution. The higher the conductivity, the more dissolved solids there are in the solution. Delicate plants, cuttings, and seedlings can experience fertilizer burn if the conductivity is too high. Once the plants begin growing, they need a stronger nutrient solution, so conductivity must be increased by adding concentrated nutrient. Some plants prefer a milder nutrient strength, while others grow better and produce better quality fruit with a higher concentration.
________________________________________

How does conductivity affect plant growth?

Answer: Conductivity is really a measure of the nutrients in the solution. Low conductivity implies a low nutrient concentration, which usually results in nutritional deficiencies and slow growth rates of your plants. One can look at the situation, as a higher conductivity is more food for your plants. However, be careful of very high levels as this can burn and or kill the plant.
________________________________________

What about fresh air?

Answer: Ventilation is often overlooked as a problem. Plants absorb nutrients when the water molecules in the leaves respire (i.e. evaporate). Better ventilation aids a high transpiration rate, which translates into a greater rate of nutrient uptake. Remember that ventilation means changing the air, not just blowing it around the room (circulation).

FoxFarm

What does NPK mean? What other nutrients are in your fertilizers?
NPK is a rating system that describes the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in a fertilizer. The NPK nutrient values are expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the product in the package. As an example, our Happy Frog® Tomato & Vegetable fertilizer has an NPK of 7-4-5.

Nitrogen, represented by the first number, is responsible for leafy, green growth and is most important in a plant’s early growth stages. Some plants, like tomatoes, are heavy nitrogen feeders and will quickly deplete the soil of nitrogen if more is not added.

Phosphorus, represented by the second number, supports root development, fruit and flowering, and helps the plant fight off disease. It helps plants transfer energy from one part of the plant to another.

Potassium, represented by the third number, helps plants fight off disease and weather extreme heat or cold. It regulates the synthesis of proteins and starches.

The NPK ratings of organic fertilizers tend to be lower, but that does not make them any less powerful. There’s more to a good fertilizer than NPK. The organic, biologically active nutrients we use in our organic products have a “functional value” that can’t be measured in a test tube. Beneficial microorganisms, pre-digested enzymes, vitamins and amino acids are the key to the power of an organic fertilizer like Big Bloom®.

Our fertilizers may also include micronutrients such as calcium and magnesium, trace minerals, and beneficial microbes that meet specific nutritional needs.

What is pH and what is the ideal pH for my vegetables and flowers?
Soil pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. A neutral soil that is neither acid nor alkaline has a pH of 7. Acid soils are considered low pH (below 7) and alkaline soils are classified as high pH (above 7). Some plants thrive in an acid or alkaline soil, but many common garden plants prefer a neutral soil. If a plant is in a soil that is too acid or too alkaline for its particular needs, it will be unable to access the nutrients in the soil. No matter how much you fertilize, the plant won’t thrive unless you adjust the soil’s pH to meet the needs of the plants.

You can buy a simple home test kit to measure the pH of your soil, and then you can adjust the pH gradually. Acid soils can be neutralized with calcium or agricultural lime, and alkaline soils can be corrected with sulfur or with regular applications of mulch or aged manure. However, it’s important to make these adjustments gradually to avoid shocking the plants, and in general we encourage you to choose plants that naturally do well with your soil type.

Our fertilizers and soils are pH-adjusted to meet your plants’ needs. For instance, our Happy Frog® Fertilizer for acid-loving plants like rhododendrons and azaleas is pH-adjusted to meet the needs of flowering shrubs that prefer acid soils. In general, hydroponic systems work well at a pH of 5.8 – 6.0, and garden soil will support a wide variety of plants with a pH of 6.6 – 6.8.

Why do you use earthworm castings, bat guano, and humic acid in so many of your products?
When we get enthusiastic about a particular ingredient, we can get a little carried away. That’s why you’ll find three of our favorite ingredients – worm castings, bat guano, and humic acid – in so many of our products.

Earthworm castings are teeming with beneficial microbes that help plants thrive. Scientists have tried to reproduce every nutrient worm castings contain in the laboratory, but they’ve been unable to create a formula that feeds plants as well as that rich, black, worm poop does. Earthworms – and their castings – help roots access nutrients that are in the soil, and help plants fight off pests and diseases.

Our proprietary source of bat guano is naturally high in phosphorus, which helps create dazzling color, scent and taste. It is also packed with beneficial microbes and helps fight off harmful nematode infestations. Bat guano also helps facilitate the transformation of soil nutrients into a form that is easier for plants to absorb, making it the perfect catalyst for our fertilizers and soils.

Humic acidis a natural by-product of organic decomposition. It contains trace amounts of nutrients and it helps hold other nutrients in the soil where plants can use them. It can improve the humus content in the soil, hold water in the soil, and generally improve soil health for better seed germination and plant growth.

What’s the deal with mycorrhizae? How do you tell an endo from and ecto? What’s a bacillus?
If you look at the ingredient listing on our products, you’ll see that we often put a powerful squadron of beneficial microorganisms in the mix. What’s all the fuss about microorganisms? Read on:

Mycorrhizae is a word that describes a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and the roots of a plant. Mycorrhizal fungi attach to plant roots and deliver water and nutrients to them. Tiny strands, called hyphae, can stretch long distances in the soil in search of the nutrients a plant needs. They promote root development, fight off disease, break down fertilizers, and they can even fight off harmful soil borne microbes and encourage the growth of beneficial microbes.

We include endomycorrhizae, which form on the insides of plant roots, and ectomycorrhizae, which attach to the outside of plant roots, to support a variety of plant life. Under the microscope, mycorrhizae colonies form nodes that look like little rice crispies attached to the roots. The entire surface area of these nodes can absorb and transmit nutrients.

We also include Bacillus subtillus, a beneficial bacteria that controls the growth of a number of plant pathogens, including blight, scab, grey mold, and mildew. It’s particularly useful for garden vegetables and fruit trees. Adding a natural disease-fighter like B. subtillus to our products helps ensure that your plants will stay healthy, and it also improves the long-term health of your soil.

Can I mix dry and wet fertilizers together?
You can use our dry mix and liquid fertilizers in combination with each other. However, we suggest that you mix dry fertilizers into the soil according to package directions, water well, and wait a few days before applying a liquid fertilizer.

Can I mix FoxFarm fertilizers with products from other companies?
Yes, but for best results, we recommend that you Keep the Family Together. Our products are designed to work together and complement one another. If you are using a FoxFarm feeding schedule, we strongly recommend that you not add another company’s products to the feeding schedule to avoid the possibility of a nutrient lock-out.

Is it possible to burn plants with FoxFarm fertilizers?
Remember that American Pride® and Marine Cuisine® do include some organic ingredients, but they are not 100% organic fertilizers. Two of our liquid fertilizers, Tiger Bloom® and Grow Big®, are also not 100% organic. Our soluble products, like Open Sesame®, Beastie Bloomz® and Cha Ching®, also contain inorganic ingredients. If you use too much, you can burn your plants. Remember when you use these extra strength, time release fertilizers: Less is More!

Don’t forget that a powerful plant food needs to be used as directed. Be patient, because a little goes a long way. American Pride® and Marine Cuisine® are meant to be mixed into the soil, so make sure you water thoroughly, pull excess fertilizer away from the base of the plant, and don’t allow fertilizer to sit on any external part of the plant.

Also, a helpful hint when feeding: always make sure that you water first, so that the soil is moist, then feed. This will help prevent possible burning with any fertilizer you use.

Organics

Our Products: Organic or Synthetic?
Our Happy Frog® fertilizers are 100% organic. Our Big Bloom® Liquid Fertilizer and all of our soils are also organic. We do offer some fertilizers with mineral-based, time-release ingredients that are not classified as organic. These include American Pride® and Marine Cuisine® fertilizers, Tiger Bloom® and Grow Big® liquids, and our soluble products like Cha Ching®, Beastie Bloomz®, and Open Sesame®.

Just What Is An Organic Fertilizer?
Organic fertilizers come directly from nature. For example, our Happy Frog® fertilizers are made up of ingredients like alfalfa meal, bat guano, and bone meal. Big Bloom®, our liquid plant food, contains earthworm castings and Norwegian kelp. And when you dig around in our organic potting soil, Ocean Forest®, you’ll find composted forest humus, peat moss, and marine ingredients like crab meal.

When you use organic products in your garden, you are providing the finest ingredients nature has to offer, harvested from all over the globe. These nutrients may be released more slowly, but they’ll last longer, too. Because the ingredients are all natural, they provide a rich, well-balanced meal to plants—one that is packed with important, but often overlooked, micronutrients.

Why Use Inorganic Ingredients?
A synthesized or mineral fertilizer can offer just the right support when your plants need it the most. Think of the last time you took vitamin C for a cold. An inorganic fertilizer can offer the same targeted benefit, and it’s fast-acting, too. Tiger Bloom®, Grow Big®, American Pride®, and Marine Cuisine® all include non-organic ingredients.

Some inorganic fertilizers are simply naturally-occurring minerals that have been treated to make them easier for plants to use. Others may be manufactured in a laboratory. Examples include ammonium sulfate, potassium chloride, and iron sucrate. Each of these are specific nutrients designed to address a plant’s individual needs.

When it comes to synthetic fertilizers, quality matters. FoxFarm chooses only the finest ingredients for its family of fertilizers that deliver optimal nutrition for each stage of a plant’s growth. We never do, nor will we ever, use cheap fillers or low-grade industrial chemicals.

Do My Plants Know the Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers?
Some people say that the plants cannot tell the difference between an organic and an inorganic fertilizer, but the soil can. Remember, soil is alive. It’s teeming with microbes, decaying leaves, tiny insects—all the very life that makes plants grow. Organic fertilizers add food to that rich mix. On the other hand, an inorganic mineral fertilizer can give your garden a boost in the same way that a concentrated multivitamin can give you the extra nutrition you need. What matters most is that everything you feed your garden must be carefully balanced to deliver the nutrition plants need while avoiding the buildup of salts and other toxins.

What’s the Big Deal About Salt?
Think about the last time you walked through a forest. It was probably cool and damp, no matter what the weather was like when you left the house. That’s because trees and other plants are giant water pumps. Water moves in through the roots, travels through the stems and leaves, and gets released into the air through a remarkable process known as transpiration. A single maple tree can transpire up to 58 gallons of water per hour. Even an ordinary tomato plant transpires 30 gallons during a growing season.

Water, then, is critical to a plant’s well-being. Too much salt in the soil can inhibit what we call a plant’s “osmotic potential”—its ability to take up water. Just as salty food can make a person thirsty, salty soil can dehydrate a plant. Cheap, poor-quality synthetic fertilizers can create salt build-up in the soil that can cause your garden more harm than good.

I’m worried about using lawn chemicals where my children and pets play.Is it possible to maintain an organic lawn?
Absolutely! In fact, it’s easier and more affordable than a chemical lawn program, not to mention better for the environment and for your family. Just follow these easy tips:
• Use Happy Frog® Premium Lawn according to package directions. For large lawns and repeat applications, it’s available in a convenient 18-pound bag.
• Set the blade on your lawn mower a little higher. This helps the grass develop a deeper, healthier root system, and it conserves water.
• Leave grass clippings on the lawn to decompose. They’re a great source of nitrogen, the nutrient that supports healthy green growth.
• Aerate the soil in fall to break up thatch. Garden centers sell special tools or spiked sandals for aeration.
• Rake Happy Frog® Soil Conditioner into your lawn once in spring and once in fall, and water well. This will add beneficial organic matter to the soil and keep your lawn healthy.

Hydroponics

Should I follow the directions on the bottle or the feeding schedule?
The directions on the bottle are designed for general use. If you’re new to our products and just want to experiment, the directions on the bottle are fine. We have also developed FoxFarm feeding schedules with more precise details for maximum yields. Try one of our feeding schedules for an entire grow cycle and you’ll see extraordinary results.

What do I do if my grow cycle is longer than your feeding schedule?
Continue to use the feeding directions for Week 12 until harvest.

Can I mix your liquid and soluble fertilizers with other manufacturer’s products?
The FoxFarm family of products are designed with a maximum capacity of nutrient levels. Mixing them with another manufacturer’s products risks putting our fertilizers out of healthy ratios, which can create nutrient lock-out. That’s why we suggest keeping the FoxFarm family of products together for optimum results. Too many ingredients can spoil the soup, create too much salt build-up, and ultimately your plants will suffer. Our nutrients are created to use together for a complete fertilization program. Using other company’s products is simply not necessary. For fantastic results, reference our FoxFarm feeding schedules.

Will Big Bloom® clog my pump in my hydroponic system?
Big Bloom® will not clog pumps. Just be sure you shake it well before using, and remember that it needs to be filtered for aeroponic systems. Using Big Bloom® and Tiger Bloom® forms a white, salty build up on my rock and rockwool. Should I flush my system? This residue can be caused by minerals in your community water supply, pH adjustment agents, micronutrient fallout, or organic sources of phosphorous. This material may not burn your plants, but it can stress them and tie up nutrients. We recommend that you change your reservoir every two weeks and flush the system with clean water.

Why do I have to adjust my pH so often with Grow Big® and Tiger Bloom®?
Both our Grow Big® and our Tiger Bloom® formulas include a concentrated micronutrient package that is low in pH. The advantage to this is that a low pH enables micronutrients to remain stable without any nutrient fallout. FoxFarm fertilizers are extra-strength, and plants can absorb them easily, but this can cause pH swings. Regular pH adjustments are recommended especially in early growth stages. As the plant ages, you’ll notice that the pH will eventually stabilize. Will I get a chemical taste from the minerals in Grow Big® and Tiger Bloom®? Absolutely not. Both formulas are made with high-quality fertilizers, micronutrients, and organic catalysts. You’ll never have to sacrifice flavor when you use FoxFarm products.

Why do you have Grow Big® in your feeding schedule when my plants are in the flowering cycle?
Grow Big® actually helps makes bigger fruit and flowers with sturdier plant structure, so it’s not just for early growth stages. It will strengthen the plant’s immune system and make it more disease resistant. By delivering some additional nitrogen through early and midterm flower development, you’ll see that Grow Big® helps maintain healthier foliage without lanky stretching. When combined with Big Bloom® and Tiger Bloom®, Grow Big® will invigorate the root system and improve nutrient uptake and transpiration rate.

Do I need to leach my hydro system when I use FoxFarm fertilizers?
Yes. A regular leaching schedule will reduce the risk of mineral salt build-up. As a result your fertilizers will be used more effectively, and your plants will be healthier overall. In general, organic nutrients contain little or no mineral salts and don’t require frequent leaching. However, we recommend leaching the system every two weeks to ensure clean operating conditions.

How often should I change my reservoir when I use FoxFarm fertilizers?
We recommend changing your reservoir every two weeks regardless of your feeding schedule. This will help reduce disease-causing pathogens and keep your system clean.

Do I need to use chlorine free water when I use your products?
No. Chlorinated community water does not adversely affect FoxFarm fertilizers. However, if you expose chlorinated water to the air for several hours, the chlorine will start to volatize and dissipate. If you’re concerned about the chlorine content in your water and you’re unable to obtain distilled water, this is a good alternative.

Soils & Soil Conditioners

What is the NPK of your soils?
All of our soil products offer balanced nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. We pH adjust them to a neutral range of 6.3 – 6.8. Because of the premium organic ingredients that we use, there is no risk of burning your plants. Our soils are ready to use, right out of the bag. There is no NPK listed on our soil packages because they are not fertilizers, but growing mediums. The real power of our soils lies in the fact that they are teeming with beneficial micro-organisms. Our soils are never steam sterilized, which allows these microorganisms to thrive and convert the organic nutrients into a form the plant can utilize.

Why do I occasionally see fungi in my soil?
Here at FoxFarm we understand you may have questions regarding a natural phenomenon that can occur in our bark-based growing mediums. We would like to help you understand what this is. Within a few days of planting you may begin to notice a brownish-yellow fungal mass that appears on the surface of your mix. You may also notice small amounts of a green fungus that forms around the ventilation holes of your soil bags. You may ask yourself the following.

What is it?
These fungi are actually a naturally occurring substance that can be found on certain types of barks, such as composted pine barks, which are a good thing. They let you know that the soil is alive and the biological micro-organisms within the soil are doing their jobs to assist in creating a healthy soil web.

Why does it happen?
Pine bark is aged and composted for long periods of time before the final screening and use in our mixes. The natural ageing process of the bark occurs during the composting process and is facilitated by the microbes naturally found in our environment. With the proper conditions consisting of the right temperature and moisture, the fungi produce mycelium (white strands) in the windrows. This is the vegetative stage of the fungus. When the bark is properly aged, it is then blended into our mixes with other fine ingredients and bagged. With the right moisture levels, coupled with warm sunny days, these soil microbes will grow and you may see them in your bags. Healthy soils are ideal conditions for fungi to complete their life cycle. Here, at FoxFarm, we treat organics as they were meant to be treated: as living organisms. This means that each soil blend is not steam-sterilized, but rather a living creature full of life. This may be why you have not noticed these fungi in other soils as they may be steam-sterilized. These natural fungi are the result of the ageing process and are a sign that your soil is continuing to be a healthy environment for a plant to thrive in. These mycelium will not harm your plants in any way.

Are your soils sterilized?
No, we don’t sterilize our soils because that would kill the very beneficial microbes which are critical in making nutrients available to plants. Your soil should be alive, not sterile! Our mixes contain beneficial fungi and micro-organisms that help plants become more disease resistant and grow healthy root systems. FoxFarm soils and fertilizers are specially formulated to build massive microbe populations.

When do I need to add fertilizer to your soils?
Ocean Forest® Potting Soil and Original Planting Mix are nutrient-rich blends that won’t require any fertilizer at first. However, you may find it easier to blend dry-mix fertilizers like Happy Frog®, American Pride® and Marine Cuisine® into the soil when you plant to make sure that the nutrients get to the root zone. If you’re using liquid fertilizers, start feeding in the second week according to package directions.

What is the difference between Ocean Forest® Potting Soil and FoxFarm® Original Planting Mix?
Ocean Forest® is designed for container planting. It contains sea based ingredients and perlite for better aeration and drainage. Our customers tell us that Ocean Forest® is the finest potting soil they’ve ever used, and because container plants depend entirely on the soil they’re grown in, that’s important. Our Original Planting Mix is designed for raised beds and in-ground plantings. It retains moisture and is ideal for ornamental landscapes. Both soils are pH adjusted to 6.3 to 6.8 and are nutrient rich. Each soil has a specific nutrient, humus, earthworm casting and peat moss content that make it ideal for its particular use. 

Can I mix Ocean Forest® Potting Soil or Original Planting Mix with native soils?
Ocean Forest® Potting Soil is designed to be used exclusively in containers to deliver the most benefit to plants. Introducing native soil into container plantings can introduce disease-causing pathogens or pests into your container garden. However, if you do add native soil to container plants, mix two parts FoxFarm soil to one part native soil. Our Original Planting Mix is designed to be mixed with native soil. It helps loosen clay soils, increase organic matter, and it inoculates the planting area with beneficial micro-organisms.

Can I use Original Planting Mix straight out of the bag in containers?
You could, but Ocean Forest® Potting Soil is a better container mix. It creates more aeration at the root zone and is designed to be used full-strength in containers. What’s the difference between the Happy Frog® soils and your other soil products, like Ocean Forest® and Original Planting Mix? Our Happy Frog® Soil Conditioner comes in a large, economical bale and is ideal for improving poor soils, mulching, and mixing into native soil for new in-ground plantings. Happy Frog® Potting Soil is an affordable alternative for container plantings that contains all the high-quality ingredients you expect from FoxFarm. Each bag is packed with earthworm castings, bat guano, mycorrhizae and humic acid to jump-start the garden. Ocean Forest® is a premium mix that contains fine marine ingredients like fish, shrimp, crab, and kelp meal in addition to earthworm castings, bat guano, peat moss, and composted forest humus.

When would I use Light Warrior® instead of a potting soil?
Light Warrior® is actually a soiless medium designed just for starting seeds. It’s very lightweight and holds water well, which makes it perfect for germination. Be sure to thoroughly dampen Light Warrior® before adding seeds to make sure the water is absorbed. Once seeds germinate, use a continuous feeding program for seedling stage through harvest. For best results, see our feeding schedules. Use a potting soil instead of Light Warrior® when you are potting up seedlings to a larger container or taking divisions or cuttings that will grow indoors in containers until they are ready to be transplanted into the garden.

Happy Frog® Fertilizers

Which Happy Frog® fertilizer should I use?
Begin with Starter for all new plantings. Switch to an appropriate blend after the first two to three weeks. For instance, we’ve got a special formula for lawns, one for acid-loving plants, and one just for Japanese maples. Tomato Vegetable has a little more nitrogen because tomatoes and other vegetables can be heavy feeders, pulling higher amounts of nutrients out of the soil when they need them most. If you’re not sure, our All-Purpose is a great option, and our Fruit & Flower will help bring just about any plant into bloom.

Can I burn plants with Happy Frog® organic fertilizers?
There’s very little risk of burning plants with our organic fertilizers. In fact, at twice the recommended dosage, plants will not burn. However, we do suggest that you follow package directions for best results. More fertilizer will not necessarily make a plant bloom earlier or grow faster! Many other factors, including weather, sunlight, water, drainage, and the quality of your soil, will impact growth and flowering times.

How often should I fertilize with Happy Frog®?
Most garden plants do best with a monthly feeding schedule that includes some time off during the dormant season. However, each plant is different, so be sure to follow package directions. How many cups are in a Happy Frog® package so that I can figure out how many packages I need? On average, there are 11 cups of fertilizer in each of the four-pound and Happy Frog® packages. This measurement varies slightly from product to product, because each Happy Frog® variety has a slightly different volume. Some of our Happy Frog® products also come in convenient 18-pound bags for large gardens and landscapes. On average, there are 49 cups in these 18-pound packages.

Should I be concerned if I notice fungi or mold growing on top of my soil after I apply Happy Frog® fertilizers?
Not at all. This is a normal condition. If fact, the fungi and mold are exactly what Happy Frog® fertilizers should be creating. These are beneficial bacteria which help deliver nutrients to your plants. However, you can reduce the appearance of surface mold by mixing Happy Frog® thoroughly into the top few inches of soil surface and water thoroughly.

My animal got into a package of Happy Frog®. What should I do?
Bad dog! Happy Frog® makes a great snack for your garden, but Fido should stay out of it. Give your animal plenty of water and call the vet.

Time Release Fertilizers

Do you offer any time-release fertilizers?
Yes. American Pride® and Marine Cuisine® are both time-release fertilizers that also contain beneficial organic ingredients. Competitor’s time-release products that are of a lower quality contribute to a build-up of salt in the soil, which makes it hard for plants to absorb nutrients and can actually cause a plant to starve. We use low-salt ingredients that help create healthy plants and healthy soils. In fact, we’ve found that earthworm populations actually increase in the presence for our products. Use American Pride® for all of your flowering trees and shrubs, especially for roses, 2-3 times per year. Use Marine Cuisine® 1-2 times per year for your evergreen and ornamental trees and shrubs, especially acid loving plants, like azaleas, camellias, rhododendrons, and dogwoods. Marine Cuisine® is great for vegetables, too.

Why did my plants burn the last time I used American Pride® and/or Marine Cuisine®?
Remember that American Pride® and Marine Cuisine® do include some organic ingredients, but they are not 100% organic fertilizers. If you use too much, you can burn your plants. With these extra strength, time-release fertilizers, less is more. Don’t forget that a powerful, six-month plant food needs to be used as directed. Be patient, because a little goes a long way. These fertilizers are meant to be mixed into the soil. Be careful not to allow the product to come into contact with the plant leaves or stems. Pull excess fertilizer away from base of plant, and make sure that you water thoroughly.

Soluble Granular Fertilizers

How do I mix the soluble fertilizers together, like Cha Ching®, Open Sesame®, and Beastie Bloomz®?
When using our three soluble fertilizers together, please adhere to our feeding schedule. Do not mix the three solubles with each other. These products should be used at different stages of flowering to avoid nutrient lock-out. Our feeding schedule outlines these recommendations. You can however, use the solubles with our liquid fertilizers. When you mix our solubles and liquid fertilizers together, do the following: Begin with a gallon of water. Add each fertilizer product to the water in the recommended dose. There is no need to use a gallon of water for each kind of fertilizer. Adding the fertilizers individually to the same gallon of water poses no risk. Do not, however, mix concentrates together in pure form. Remember not to overfeed, or you could burn your plants.

Liquid Fertilizers

Is Big Bloom® only for making flowers bloom?
Big Bloom® works magic in the flower garden, but that’s not all it’s good for. It also promotes healthy rooting, speeds healing of stressed or diseased plants, and increases essential oil production for extraordinary fragrance and fabulous flavor.

Why is the NPK rating so low on Big Bloom®?
Big Bloom® is not a mineral salt fertilizer. It’s entirely organic. The organic, biologically active nutrients we use in our organic products have a functional value that can’t be measured in a test tube. Beneficial microorganisms, pre-digested enzymes, vitamins and amino acids are the key to the power of Big Bloom®. These ingredients don’t often register high NPK numbers; however, they do have a profound effect on plant life.

Can I use Big Bloom® and Tiger Bloom® together?
Yes! Our liquid fertilizer formulas complement one another. Used together, Big Bloom® and Tiger Bloom® will deliver bigger fruit and flowers with sweeter taste and more aroma. The beneficial microbes on Big Bloom® will provide optimum nutrient delivery, invigorated root zone health, and accelerated flowering. See our feeding schedules for ideas on how to combine these fertilizers for outstanding results.

How do I mix the liquid fertilizers like Big Bloom®, Tiger Bloom®, and Grow Big® together? What about the solubles, like Cha Ching®, Open Sesame®, and Beastie Bloomz®?
When you mix FoxFarm liquids or our soluble fertilizers together, do the following: Begin with a gallon of water. Add each fertilizer product to the water in the recommended dose. There is no need to use a gallon of water for each kind of fertilizer. Adding the fertilizers individually to the same gallon of water poses no risk. Do not, however, mix concentrates together in pure form. Remember not to overfeed, or you could burn your plants. For best results use the liquid and soluble products together using the above guidelines. Be sure to reference our feeding schedule, because all products should not be used at the same time in order to avoid nutrient lock-out.

Why do you have Grow Big® in your feeding schedule when my plants are in the flowering cycle?
Grow Big® actually helps makes bigger fruit and flowers with sturdier plant structure, so it’s not just for early growth stages. It will strengthen the plant’s immune system and make it more disease resistant. By delivering some additional nitrogen through early and midterm flower development, you’ll see that Grow Big® helps maintain healthier foliage without lanky stretching. When combined with Big Bloom® and Tiger Bloom®, Grow Big® will invigorate the root system and improve nutrient uptake and transpiration rate.

Will Big Bloom® clog my pump in my hydroponic system?
Big Bloom® will not clog pumps. Just be sure you shake it well before using, and remember that it needs to be filtered for aeroponic systems. Why do I have to adjust my pH so often with Grow Big® and Tiger Bloom®? Both our Grow Big® and our Tiger Bloom® formulas include a concentrated micronutrient package that is low in pH. The advantage to this is that a low pH enables micronutrients to remain stable without any nutrient fallout. FoxFarm fertilizers are extra-strength, and plants can absorb them easily, but this can cause pH swings. Regular pH adjustments are recommended especially in early growth stages. As the plant ages, you’ll notice that the pH will eventually stabilize.

Will I get a chemical taste from the minerals in Grow Big® and Tiger Bloom®?
Absolutely not. Both formulas are made with high-quality fertilizers, micronutrients, and organic catalysts. You’ll never have to sacrifice flavor when you use FoxFarm products.

Don’t Bug Me®

Is Don’t Bug Me® organic?
Don’t Bug Me® contains pyrethrum, which is derived from chrysanthemum flowers. It is environmentally friendly, but because Don’t Bug Me® contains a synergist called piperonyl butoxide that helps activate the pyrethrum, it is not classified as a 100% organic pesticide. Even organic products need to be used with care. Please follow package directions carefully when applying Don’t Bug Me®, and remember that encouraging beneficial insects and tolerating a little bug damage will make your garden healthier in the long run. (Hint: plants that produce clusters of small flowers, like alyssum, yarrow, and feverfew, will attract beneficial insects that attack pests.)

Will Don’t Bug Me® kill spider mites and their eggs?
Don’t Bug Me® will kill spider mites when the spray contacts the insect. Egg capsules can be damaged by the Don’t Bug Me® spray; however, it will not destroy them. Spray immediately when you see an initial infestation. Repeat in four to five days, and maintain a weekly application in greenhouse environments.

Sun System & General Lighting FAQ

1. Does the Glass included with my reflector block UV and/or Heat?
Yes and Yes. All glass has naturally occurring UV inhibitors but we are not adding additional filtration as some amount of UV is known to be beneficial, the primary function of the glass lens is to aid in heat retention and evacuation (air cooled).

2. How much light am I losing by having the glass lens in this fixture?
Clear glass does result in slightly reduced light due to the lambertian refraction effect. The amount depends on the lamp type, glass thickness, shape of reflector and reflective materials.

3. Do I have to air cool my reflector?
No, all ETL listed reflectors are tested without air flow being present. However the primary function of an air cooled is to induce air flow and evacuate the heated ambient air.

4. What is the maximum length I can have between the ballast and reflector?
This primarily depends upon the ballast type (magnetic vs electronic) and also the lamp type (HPS vs Probe Start MH). Some magnetic ballasts can use “long range ignitors” for up to 50’, and most Electronic ballasts reliably fire lamp at lengths above 50’.

5. How many BTU’s Does my system and reflectors create?
1 watt = 3.41 btu per hour.
1000watt = 3,412 btu per hour

6. What is the advantage of running my ballast on 240V?
Higher voltage operation reduced the amperage consumption. However we all pay for electricity by the Watt. There is no effective power savings in operating 240v vs 120v.

7. Can you explain what CDM/ The LEC315 is?
CDM = Ceramic Discharge Metal Halide (the next evolution of high performance metal halide lamps)
LEC315 = Light Emitting Ceramic, 315 watts

8. What is a VHO T5 fixture
VHO = Very High Output, T5 = Tubular lamp 5×1/8” in diameter

9. How do I figure out how much it will cost a month to operate my lights?
Look at your local power bill for the rate per KW (kilowatt), per hour. Example if you pay .10$ per KW it will cost you .10$ to operate a 1000w system for 1 hour (note: all systems have a certain % of efficiency loss. Typical 1000w ballast / lamp actually consume approx 1080w)

10. Can I use any normal extention cord to run my ballast or do I need a specific rated cord?
Look at the extension cord ANSI rating for maximum wattage / amperage allowed. Never exceed or operate at maximum load rating of an extension cord.

11. Why do timers keep failing on my 1000W ballast?
Wall plug in appliance timers are not built to handle the inrush current created by a 1000W ballast. Even though it may appear that it is rated for it, there’s different types of electrical loads and the timers usually aren’t rated to handle a 1000W ballast load. When trying to control your lights you should use the appropriate Light Controller which are built specifically to handle the load from ballasts.

12. I am having a hard time hanging my reflector do you have any tips?
Four hands are better then two. Ensure that your mounting platform is secure and strong enough to bear the weight of your components.

13. My reflector does not have any hinges or thumb screws, how do I change the lamp or clean the glass?
If the reflector does not have an easy access door, you may need to remove the air ducting.

14. What should I use to clean the inside of my reflector or the lamp?
Ensure fixture is not powered & lamp has been allowed sufficient time to cool. Use a clean dry cloth and gently wipe the outer jacket of the lamp.

15. How can I purchase Sun System products?
Look for an authorized Sunlight Supply dealer. www.sunlightsupply.com has an easy to use dealer locator.

16. I broke or lost my glass/frame for my reflector, are these available for sale?
Yes, we offer replace lens, or lens & frame combinations for all current reflectors.

17. The receptacle on my ballast or cord on my reflector has been damaged can this part be repaired or replaced?
We recommend the first call should be to the original place of purchase.

18. What is covered under warranty on my reflector and ballast?
Credit or replacement of product for anything that has failed during normal “as intended” usage during the warranty period. Warranty period determined by product type.

19. What is not covered by my warranty?
Anything other than the product itself.

20. I keep hearing people talk about copper core ballast Vs Aluminum core ballast, what is the difference?
Magnetic ballast windings have been made with both Copper and copper covered Aluminum windings. Copper windings historically have a lower temperature bench rise than aluminum windings.

21. Are all ballast multi volt? Does this mean I can simply plug my ballast into any voltage?
No, some ballast may be 120v only, or 120v/240v or true Quad voltage 120v/208v/240v/277v. Depending on fixture type a licensed electrician may be required to alter the voltages. Altering voltages may potentially void ETL rating and warranty. Certain Electronic ballast are “intellivolt” and do not require internal wiring modification to operate at different voltages. Please refer to your individual product for appropriate markings and operation instruction.

22. What is the proper way to air cool a reflector? Push Vs Pull?
Typically pulling air through a reflector (inducing air) will create a tighter seal around the seams vs using positive pressure to blow (push) through the reflector.

23. Are there any drawbacks to extending your lamp cord?
Yes, longer cords create resistance within the wire. Refer to your individual system and instructions for operation parameters

24. What is the maximum number of lamp extension cords I can use?
Refer to your individual system and instructions for operation parameters

25. Can I use a 1000 watt ballast for supplemental light in my backyard greenhouse?
Absolutely.

26. What happens if my ballast or reflector fails? Who do I contact? Is there any troubleshooting I can do at home?
We recommend the first call should be to the original place of purchase.

27. What is the foot pattern of my reflector? How will factors like reflector dimensions and depth affect my light pattern?
Our goal is to create an even light plane (without hot spots) in a 3×3 or 4×4 pattern. However, with so many reflector types, shapes & reflective subtrates combined with different lighting sources, wattages and configurations the combinations of light pattern are many.

28. Will my Ballast run on 208v or 277V?
This depends on the ballast itself. Different voltage operation may void ETL and warranty.

29. What is the difference between all the listings I see on ballast.. CE, ETL and UL for example?
These are all safety organizations endorsed by the NRTL Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories.

30. How many 1000w ballast can I run on a 20A circuit in my house?
Depends on voltage used. Never operate a circuit under max amperage load.

31. Why does my MH lamp still work when my ballast switch is in the HPS setting position?
Certain Pulse Start MH lamps require an HPS ignition in order to fire the lamp. However, please confirm lamp & ballast compliance before operating on any setting.

32. What is the difference between 4KV and 5KV sockets? Or china and leviton brand sockets?
KV = Kilovolt rating. We recommend using 5KV minimum (6KV for 1500w). Leviton is a major brand socket manufacturer.

33. What is the difference of a pulse start metal halide vs probe start metal halide
Pulse Start requires a higher ignition pulse in order to strike the initial lamp arc. Probe Start lamps do not require this type of ignition pulse.

34. My lowrider reflector has a oval duct coming off of it, does this require special ducting?
No, most all commercial ducting easily form fits to oval air plenums. The CFM of the air flow is not effected by the 6” oval shape vs 6” round shape

35. Explain the Benefits of the luxor hood
Base up lamp operation is known to be the most efficient lamp position for in order for the light to refract and exit the reflector. The Luxor construction is made with a separate air chamber to cool through convection allowing the lamp to operate at it’s intended high temperature in order to maximize the lamp function. The Luxor is assembled with unparalleled 98% reflective materials

36. Explain the benefits of the doulble ended lamp
1000w HPS DE lamps are more efficient, the can offer an improved light spectrum and have quicker warm up / restrike times as well as improved lumen maintenance over the lifetime of the lamp

37. What is HID Lighting?
HID lighting stands for High Intensity Discharge, which is a special type of lighting that is much more intense (brighter) than other types of lighting available. An HID lighting system consists of a ballast, reflector, socket and lamp (light bulb). The ballast acts like the engine, converting and driving energy to illuminate the lamp. HID lighting options include High Pressure Sodium (HPS), Metal Halide (MH), Mercury Vapor and Low Pressure Sodium. The two typically used for plant growth are HPS and MH systems.

38. What is Color Rendering Index (CRI), Color Temperature (K) and Lumen?
Color Rendering Index is a subjective measurement of how well a lamp source renders colors. A measurement of the degree of color- shift an object undergoes when illuminated by a light source when compared to a reference source of comparable color temperature. Incandescent light is assumed to have a CRI of around 100 so it will render all colors correctly. MH only has a CRI of about 70, so only 70% of colors will be rendered correctly. HPS has a CRI of 22.
Color Temperature is not how hot the lamp is. Color temperature is the relative whiteness of a piece of tungsten steel heated to that temperature in degrees Kelvin. HPS has a warm (red) color temperature of around 2700K as compared to MH at 4200K, which has a cool (blue) color temperature.
What is important to remember about these two terms is that CRI readings, of two sources, can only be compared if their color temperature is equal. You cannot compare the CRI of HPS (CRI=22) vs. Metal Halide (CRI=70) because the color temperatures are dif erent (2200K vs. 4500K).
Lumen is a measurement of light output. It refers to the amount of light emitted by one candle that falls on one square foot of surface located at a distance of one foot from the candle. Traditionally, lumens have been the benchmark of a lamps ability to grow plants; meaning the brighter the lamp the better the plant. However, studies have shown that a broader color spectrum lamp will perform much better than a lamp with high lumen output, especially when it comes to plant growth.

39. What is the difference between MH and HPS with regards to plant growth?
MH lamps provide more of the blue/green spectrum, which is ideal for leafy crops, and/or plants that are in a vegetative (actively growing) stage. MH lamps provide a more natural appearance in color and are typically the choice for plants that have little to no natural light available. HPS lamps provide more yellow/orange/red spectrum, which is ideal for most plants that are actively fruiting and flowering. In addition, HPS lighting is the choice for growers looking to supplement natural sunlight. Ideally, the horticulturalist will use MH to grow their plants and HPS to fruit and flower their plants.

40. What is the difference between HID and Fluorescent lighting with regards to plant growth?
Traditionally, fluorescent lighting was used for seedlings, cuttings and plants with low light-level requirements and HID was used for established plants and plants with higher light-level requirements. Advances in fluorescent lighting technology, however, have provided more options for horticulturists. T5 fluorescent lighting is the latest in plant growth lighting. T5’s high-light output combined with its low heat and energy consumption makes it an ideal light source to grow a broader array of plants.

41. What are the benefits of using T5 fluorescent lighting for plant growth?
T5 lamps provide the ideal spectrum for plant growth. Photosynthesis rates peak at 435 nm and 680 nm. A 6500K T5 lamp has a spectral distribution with relative intensity peaks at 435 nm and 615 nm. This equates to very little wasted light energy in terms of plant growth. T5 lamps promote incredible health and vigor of seedlings and cuttings. Root development is superior relative to other lighting sources. While T5 lighting is excellent for starting seeds and cuttings, it’s also able to produce enough light for full term growth. Because of their minimal heat output, T5 lamps can be placed 6” – 8” above the plant canopy which maximizes photosynthetic response. Unlike conventional fluorescent lamps, plants grown under T5 lamps do not have to be rotated to the center of the lamp. T5’s slim diameter enables better photo-optic control of the emitted light, increasing efficiency in the form of even light distribution.
Environmental Impacts of T5 (at a glance):
o T5 lamps have a diameter of 5/8” – smaller is better when it comes to manufacturing, transportation and disposal.
o Reduction in raw materials and components needed for manufacturing.
o Reduction in lamp and fixture packaging materials due to relative size.
o T5 are constructed of 40% less glass than T8.
o T5 contain 30% less phosphor than T8.
o T5 contain 3mg of mercury. 70% less than T8.
o Longer lamp life means reduced maintenance cost and less going to the landfill.

42. What are the major differences between HID ballasts and electronic ballasts?
Frequency output to the lamp and energy conversion from electricity to usable light are the biggest differences between HID ballasts and electronic ballasts. HID ballasts produce a frequency of 60 Hz. Electronic ballasts vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, but the frequency produced can be 400x that of an HID ballast. HID ballasts produce more heat than electronic ballasts, thus making electronic ballasts more energy efficient. You will not, however, save money on your electric bill by using electronic ballasts. HID lighting has been available for 60+ years, while electronic ballast (especially 400 watt and higher) is a relatively new technology.

43. Are electronic ballasts more energy efficient?
Electronic ballasts are more efficient at converting electricity into usable light. Since your power bill is based on kilowatt-hours and not efficiency, a 1000 watt electronic ballast will cost you about the same as a 1000 watt HID ballast to operate.

44. Do I need special wiring in my house for my lighting system?
Lighting systems are available in a variety of voltages. The standard used by most gardeners is 120 volts / 60 Hz which plugs into a standard wall outlet. Other voltages may require special circuits and receptacles. Always contact a licensed electrician if the light you purchased has special voltage requirements and never exceed more than 75% of the rated ability of the fuse/breaker. (For example: use no more than 15 amps on a 20-amp circuit.)

45. What voltages are available for HID and Fluorescent lights?
HID systems are available in 120 volt, 208 volt, 240 volt, 277 volt and 480 volt – All at 60 Hz. Fluorescent lighting varies, but most are available from 100 volt to 277 volt and 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

46. How often do I need to change my light bulb?
Most lamp manufacturers rate their lamps by “Average Life Hours” and usually claim 10,000 to 24,000 hours. These ratings are based on when the lamp will completely fail to come on. They do not factor in loss of intensity or loss of color. HID lamps lose intensity and color through normal use. This is OK if you are lighting a warehouse, but when it comes to plant growth, these losses can mean wasted electricity and poor plant performance. Serious horticulturalists recommend that you replace your lamps after 6000 hours of use. This equates to using your light 16 hours a day for one year.

47. How long should I run my lights?
This depends on the type of plants and whether you have natural sunlight available to your garden. As a general rule, when you are in a vegetative stage of plant growth and you have no natural sunlight, run your lights 14-18 hours a day. If you have natural sunlight, it will vary because the sunlight may or may not be direct. It will take a little experimenting to find the best length of time to run your lights. If you are actively fruiting and flowering, the rule is to run your lights 12 hours a day if you have no natural light.

48. How high do I need to hang my lights above my plants?
The higher the wattage the further away you want the light to be from your plants due to the amount of heat. HID lighting will be further away than a fluorescent fixture because of this. When mounting your lighting fixture take into account the type of plant and how tall the plant will grow. You want to keep the light as close as you can, but not so close to burn the plant. A simple rule is “if it is comfortable for the back of your hand, it will be a safe distance for your plants”. Doing a little research on the type of plant and where it comes from will help in determining how much (or little) light your plants like. With fast growing plants, you may need to check the hanging height on a regular basis as plants that get too close to the lamp will be severely burned.

49. How big of an area will my light cover?
The size of the garden area will determine the wattage you need. If we assume that the plants will get no sunlight, a 1000 watt light will cover about 7 x 7 feet of growing area. A 600 watt will cover 6 x 6 feet, a 400 watt will cover 4 x 4 feet, and a 250 watt will cover 3 x 3 feet. These sized areas would be considered the “Primary Growing” areas. These lights will light-up larger areas, but plants placed outside of the Primary Growing area, will stretch and bend toward the light; a phenomenon called phototropism. Keep these areas of coverage in mind when using multiple fixtures. The best results occur when the areas of coverage overlap.

50. Why do I need glass to get the ETL Listing on a Metal Halide light?
The inner arc tube of a Metal Halide lamp contains mercury. Eddison Testing Laboratories has stated that for a Metal Halide fixture to maintain its ETL Listing, that an additional tempered safety lens is required in the event that the arc-tube and outer glass fail. This will prevent the spread of Mercury.

51. Can I run a 1000 watt bulb in my 400 watt lighting system?
No! The internal components of the ballast are designed to send the correct voltage and current for the rated lamp. Mixing lamps and ballasts will result in premature failure and will void the manufacturers’ warranty. Consider the size area you want your garden to be prior to making a lighting purchase. It is better to grow into a fixture than out of one.

52. Can I run a 430 watt bulb in a 400 watt lighting system?
Yes, the internal components of 400 watt and 430 watt ballasts are almost identical. You will only get 400 watts of light out of the 430 watt lamp, however.

53. Do I need to wear gloves when handling an HID light bulb?
Manufacturers do not state that gloves are required when handling their lamps. It is recommended that your hands be thoroughly washed prior to handling HID lamps though.

54. What is a conversion bulb?
A lamp that operates on the opposite ballast it was originally designed for. For example, a 940 watt conversion lamp is an HPS lamp that runs on a 1000 watt Metal Halide Ballast. There are also MH lamps that are designed to operate on HPS ballasts. These bulbs allow the grower to purchase the ballast of their choice and offer the flexibility of growing a variety of plant types by simply changing the lamp they need.

55. Which Sun System® Reflectors have built-in socket assemblies?
o Agrotech™
o Adjust-A-Wing (all types)
o BlockBuster™ 6” & 8”
o Cool Sun
o Cool Sun XL
o Econowing
o Great White
o Magnum XXXL 6” & 8” o Silver Sun
o Sun Tube ™ 6”
o Super Sun®
o Super Sun® 2
o Yield Master 8” & 10”
o Yield Master™ II 4” Classic
o Yield Master™ II 6” Supreme & Classic

56. Which Sun System® Reflectors accept BT-56 bulbs?
o Agrotech Magnum
o Cool Sun
o Cool Sun XL
o Great White o Large Convertible
o Magnum XXXL 6″ & 8″
o Yield Master 10″

57. Does a BT-56 lamp perform better than a BT-37?
No! BT-56 was the standard for many years. The reduced jacketed BT-37 will provide the same intensity and color that a BT-56 lamp provides. BT-37 is a physically smaller lamp and is easier to ship and handle.

58. Is the socket assembly sold separate for Sun System® ballasts?
Yes

59. Power cords for Future-Brite™, Infinity™ or Galaxy™ ballasts?
No. The Future-Brite™ electronic ballast is hard wired for either 120 volt or 240 volt. The Galaxy™ and Infinity™ electronic ballasts use the Smart Volt™ detachable power cord.

60. How do I clean the inside of my Sun System® Reflector?
Warm water and mild dish soap are the best to clean and maintain the highly reflective finish. Avoid bleach, ammonia and other harsh or abrasive cleaners.

Hydro 101: An 8-step guide to successful indoor gardening
1) The right environment
Having the right environment is critical for your garden. Key elements to a successful garden room include relative humidity, temperature, CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) and air circulation/exchange. The ideal humidity for a garden room falls between 40 & 60 percent. Some plants like higher humidity, but know that higher humidity can lead to problems with fungus and disease. Temperatures in your grow room should be between 68 – 75 F degrees. Temperature changes will lead to variations in humidity levels. Avoid drastic temperature changes over a short period of time. Your plants need CO2 to grow. Assuming you have good air circulation/ exchange, your garden room will naturally have between 300-400 PPM (parts per million) of CO2; higher CO2 levels should accelerate growth rates. If you choose not to supplement CO2 in your garden room, it is important to address the air circulation/exchange so that your plants will receive fresh CO2.
2) Start off with good water
The water you use for your plants will determine how well your plants will grow, regardless of what you add in terms of nutrients and supplements.PPM (parts per million) or EC (electrical conductivity) are the measurement of the salts in a solution. Neither PPM nor EC readings will tell you what is in your solution / water, but rather are indicators of the solutions ability to conduct electricity. Ideally, you want to start of with a low PPM or EC then you can add nutrients specified to your plants requirements. You can reduce the PPM of your water using a Reverse Osmosis (R.O.) unit then build your nutrient solution around what your plants need. pH (potential hydrogen) measures the acidity or alkalinity of your solution on a scale of 0 – 14. A solution is considered acidic below 7 and basic at 7 or higher. When working with hydroponics you typically want your pH to fall between 5.8 and6.2. When growing in soil or coco you want your pH between 6.0 and 6.8. The most important rule to remember with pH is to avoid extremes. Nutrient “lockout” occurs with high and low pH levels.
3) Choose a method
Ebb & Flow gardens flood and drain a tray of plants with a nutrient solution at regular intervals. A drip garden provides nutrient solution to the plant through tubes & emitters (drip stakes) to each plant. Aeroponic growing mists an oxygenated nutrient solution directly to the roots of a plant. NFT (Nutrient Film Technique) gardens create a slow moving nutrient solution -‘film’- that flows over the roots of the plants. Organics have become a preferred method of growing. Choose the size container you want, an organic soil/medium, an organic fertilizer and water by hand.
4) Choose a medium
Growing mediums act as the anchor for the plants root system. Some add nutritional value to your plants while others simply give the roots something to hold on to. Some mediums to consider are soil, soil-less mixes, coco, hydroton, rockwool/stonewool, or silica stone. Coco is available in both a loose and compressed form. Coco is made from the husks of a coconut, and it is very pH stable and provides good moisture retention and natural aeration qualities. Hydroton or clay pebbles are made from expanded, pH neutral clay. They tend to hold water well and have great oxygen to water ratio; this makes hydroton suitable for hydroponic and soil gardens. With proper sterilization techniques, hydroton can be reused. Rockwool is made from stone that is heated then spun into fibers. It is then compressed into starter cubes, grow blocks, or slabs. This medium has excellent oxygen to water ratio. Rockwool tends to have a higher pH, so flushing with 5.5-5.8 pH balanced water or a rockwool conditioning solution is recommended. Rockwool works best in an ebb & flow and drip systems. Silica stone is a rock that contains high levels of silicate which helps slow transpiration rates of plants. This is especially helpful in garden rooms that have temperatures above 85 F degrees. Silica stone is pH neutral and environmentally friendly. Like hydroton, silica stone can be reused and is suitable for hydroponic and soil gardens.
5) Nutrients
Like humans, plants require food (nutrients) to grow. Nutrients come in organic and synthetic varieties and are available in both liquid and dry form. Nutrients can be separated into two categories, macro and micro nutrients. The macronutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur. The micronutrients or trace nutrients include iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum and chlorine. If the nutrients are deficient or are abundant you may see burning, curling or yellowing. You do not want to over or under fertilize. There are many different types of nutrients/fertilizers available on the market. You can purchase organic, synthetic (chemical) or a combination of both. Most nutrients/fertilizers will have an N-P-K (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium) on the front of the bottle. In the vegetative or growth stage the “N” will typically be higher. In the flowering or bloom stage the “P” will typically be higher. You may also consider implementing additives/supplements into your nutrient mix. Additives/supplements can bolster microbial activity at the root zone, increase size, flavor and aroma. When used together, nutrients and supplements will help you achieve maximum results.
6) Lighting
High Intensity Discharge (HID) is the preferred lighting in a garden room. The two types of HID lighting commonly used are HPS (High Pressure Sodium) and MH (Metal Halide). HPS lamps deliver more of an orange/ red spectrum, which is ideal for most plants in the flowering/bloom stage. MH lamps deliver more of a blue/green spectrum, which is ideal for most plants in the vegetative/growth stage. Another type of lighting ideal for plant growth is T5 lighting. T5 lighting is a high-output fluorescent light with low heat and minimal energy consumption. It is an ideal light for cuttings, mother plants and short growth cycles. All plants require light in order to grow and bloom. Most plants grow and bloom according to the amount of light they are given. In the growth or vegetative stage plants typically want 15-18 hours of light. In the bloom stage you reduce the amount of light your plants get to 10-12 hours. You want to make sure the light comes on and of at the same time everyday (just like mother- nature). The best way to accomplish this is by putting your light on a timer. Please consult your nearest hydroponic retail store for more information on which light is best for you.
7) Testing equipment
There are many different meters available for testing pH, PPM, EC, temperature, humidity, CO2 and light levels. Single meters are available as are combination meters that test and/or monitor your environmental conditions The important thing to remember is your garden will only be as good as the limiting factor. Water, nutrient, light, temperature, humidity, CO2 & circulation are the elements to a successful garden room. By “dialing in” these elements, you will ensure a successful and bountiful garden.
8)Optional Accessories
There are many items available to help your garden grow. Organics, controls, fans, blowers, plant stakes, relays, nutritional supplements and the lists go on. Consult with your retail supplier to discuss what the best accessories for your garden are. Happy Gardening!!

The NPKs of Growing

(N) NITROGEN
Nitrogen is essential for plant growth. Nitrogen is a part of every living cell. The two forms of nitrogen which plants take up are in the ammonia (NH4) and nitrate (N03) ion forms. Most agronomic crops take up most of their nitrogen in the nitrate ion form. Plants will utilize N in the (NH4) ion form if present and available to the plant. Lack of nitrogen and chlorophyll means that plants cannot utilize sunlight as an energy source to carry on essential functions such as nutrient uptake. Research has proven foliar or leaf applications of nitrogen is one form of application that can supplement a plants nitrogen requirements during the growing cycle.
• Nitrogen is necessary for chlorophyll synthesis and as a part of the chlorophyll molecule is involved in photosynthesis.
• Nitrogen is also a component of amino acids.
• Nitrogen is needed for growth of plants.
From the Greek words “nitron genes” meaning “nitre” and “forming” and the Latin word “nitrum”. Discovered in Scotland by Daniel Rutherford in 1772.
(P) PHOSPHORUS
Phosphate is a very important plant nutrient (macro-nutrient) needed for the plant to complete its normal production cycle. The highest level of P in young plants is found in tissue at the growing stage. As plants mature most of the P moves into the flower and then to the seed or fruit.
• Phosphorus is needed for photosynthesis.
• Phosphorus is necessary for plant respiration.
• Phosphorus is essential for energy storage and transfer.
• Phosphorus is needed for cell division.
• Phosphorus is necessary for cell enlargement.
• Phosphorus is essential for several other plant processes.
From the Greek word “phosphoros” meaning “bringer of light” (an ancient name for the planet Venus?). Discovered in Germany by Hennig Brand in 1669.
(K) POTASSIUM
An important function of Potassium is it’s influence in efficient water use. It helps in the process of opening and closing of plant leaf pores, called the stomata. Potassium is found in cell walls which surround stomata. Adequate amounts of Potassium can increase stress conditions on plants during drought conditions. Potassium is also responsible for producing quality crops.
• Potassium is essential for protein synthesis.
• Potassium is important in the breakdown of carbohydrates, providing energy for plants.
• Potassium helps to control ionic balance.
• Potassium is important in the translocation of minerals.
• Potassium helps plants to overcome effects of disease.
• Potassium is essential in the fruit formation stage.
• Potassium helps improve shelf life of fruits and vegetables.
• Potassium is involved in the activation of more than 60 enzymes which regulate the rates of major plant growth reactions.
From the English word “potash” and the Arabic word “qali” meaning alkali (“K” comes from the Latin word “kalium”). Discovered in England by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807.
Container Capacities
PROD. # POT SIZE POT CAPACITY
724140 5”x 5”x 6.5” square pot black jumbo senior 724150
724150 5”x 5”x 6.5” square pot white jumbo senio 2.8 qt. / 2.65 liter
724160 6”x 6”x 7” square pot black magnum 4.35 qt. / 4.1 liter
724425 5.5”x 5.5”x 6” square pot white jumbo 3.15 qt. / 3 liter
724525 Am Hydro Perfect Pot 1.75 gal. / 7 qt. / 6.6 liter
724540 1 gallon nursery pot 1 gal. / 4 qt. / 3.78 liter
724545 2 gallon nursery pot 2 gal. / 8 qt. / 7.57 liter
724550 3 gallon nursery pot 3 gal. / 12 qt. / 11.35 liter
724555 5 gallon nursery pot 5 gal. / 20 qt. / 19 liter

Pot Size # of Pots per 3 CF Bag
4” square pot 147
1 gallon pot 21
2 gallon pot 10
3 gallon pot 7
5 gallon pot 4

Technical Information Guide

IMPORTANT PRODUCT INFORMATION READ IMMEDIATELY
KEEP ORIGINAL PACKAGING – ALL RETURNS NEED TO BE IN THE ORIGINAL PACKAGING IN ORDER TO AVOID PRODUCT DAMAGE DURING SHIPPING. ANY DAMAGE TO PRODUCTS NOT IN THEIR ORIGINAL PACKAGING WILL NOT BE COVERED UNDER WARRANTY.
SAFETY FIRST!
FAILURE TO OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING SAFETY WARNINGS MAY RESULT IN SERIOUS INJURY. IN ADDITION, FAILURE TO OBSERVE THESE SAFETY WARNINGS WILL RESULT IN A WAIVER OF ALL LIABILITIES ON SUNLIGHT SUPPLY®, INC. AND WILL VOID ALL WARRANTIES.
WARNING:
• If the exterior of the lamp is damaged, replace lamp immediately.
• Disconnect power before re-lamping.
• When re-lamping, make sure lamp has time to cool before touching.
• Make sure power cord and lamp cord are connected properly.
• Do NOT hang by power cord or lamp cord.
• Do NOT make contact with the interior of the socket while the power is on.
• Do NOT operate the light systems in wet locations.
• Do NOT plug this system into a supply voltage other than what is instructed on the ballast.
• Do NOT attempt to open, rewire or reconfigure any components of the light system. It will void the warranty and could cause serious injury or death.
• These products operate at very high temperatures. Keep away from children.
• Do not plug or unplug a lamp cord while the ballast is turned on.
• Do not use with generators. Warranty will be voided.
• The Lite Pipe™, Sun Tube™ and Digital Fusion™ all need to be air cooled.
• Glass required in reflectors when using metal halide (MH) lamps for UL listing to apply. Not required with high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps.
REMOTE BALLAST SETUP:
(SUN SYSTEM® 1, 6, 10, BUDGET GRO™, HARVEST PRO™ & HARVEST PRO™ ELITE)
1. Remove the system from the box along with all additional parts.
2. The Smart Volt™ systems come standard with the 120 volt Smart Volt™ power cord. The Sun System® 1 and 6, Harvest Pro™ and Harvest Pro™ Elite have the Power Pointer™ voltage selector. The Sun System® 10 and Budget Gro™ have the Power Slider™ voltage selector. Make sure it is on the 120 volt option to plug in the provided cord. To change the voltage on the Sun System® 1 and 6, Harvest Pro™ & Harvest Pro™ Elite, simply pull out and twist 180º (Fig. 4a). For the Sun System® 10 & Budget Gro™, slide the door to the marked 240 volt side (Fig. 4b). To use the 240 volt you must purchase the 240 volt Smart Volt™ power cord (#903082 or #903084) separately.
3. Switchable Units: When using a SS-6 MH/HPS (Metal Halide/High Pressure Sodium)
switchable unit, switch the system to the MH side to run a Metal Halide lamp or HPS to run a High Pressure Sodium lamp. For a SS-6 1000 switchable, select the HPS option of the ballast by pushing the bottom of the switch so that the red part of the switch is visible. Press the top part of the switch for MH. A SS-6 400 switchable is marked HPS400 for the HPS side and MH400 for the MH side.
4. Connect the socket to the hanging reflector (see reflector setup Fig.4). If the lamp cord is included with the reflector, skip this step.

1. Now connect the lamp cord to the remote ballast (Fig.2). Make sure to attach the securing ears to the plug.
2. Carefully screw the proper lamp into the socket. Refer to lamping instructions on the ballast.
3. For SS-6 units make sure to select the proper setting on the ballast to match the lamp that is
being used. Make sure the switch is properly set for either MH or HPS type lamp (Fig.3).
4. Lastly, turn the system on by plugging the power cord into the proper NEMA configured receptacle.
5. You should use a properly rated Smart Volt™ cord (120 or 240 volt) for the power that you are using. If you energize this ballast with 240 volt power while the female end of the power cord is plugged into the 120 volt receptacle you will “fry” the ballast and void the warranty. If you want to run this ballast with 240 volt power, you should purchase a 240 volt Smart Volt™ cord separately.
BULB INFORMATION:
Proper Bulb Care
Bulbs should be replaced every year to maintain maximum lumen output. If a lamp fails to reach brightness, please contact your retail store.
Fluorescent Fixtures
If there are bulbs that will not fire, try swapping the bulbs around for others that are working. This will help determine if the bulbs are defective.
REFLECTOR SETUP:
1. See (Fig. 5) for attaching the socket on reflectors which do not include the socket.
2. Some reflectors will come with a built-in socket assembly, while others you will need to purchase one separately.
3. If the reflector does not have a built in socket, use a socket assembly that is sold separately. Choose from Product No. 903055 or 903060.
4. Some reflectors include glass. For other reflectors it may be purchased separately if you choose to use it. Typically people use glass to control air movement through the reflector during air cooling. This also protects/contains the environment of your grow area. Glass is not required when using HPS lamps for the ETL listing to apply. It is required for MH lamps for this listing to apply. The glass installation process will vary by reflector type. It is, although, a very simple process for all Sun System reflectors.
5. Use an eyebolt or some other means of hanging securely from the ceiling.
6. V-Hangers (Fig. 6) are used to hang the reflector.
7. SunLifts, #710125, Grow Yo-Yo, #710129 (Fig. 7) or jack chain may be used to adjust the hanging height.

COMPLETE SYSTEMS SETUP:

(SUN SYSTEM® 2, 4 & Sun System 150)
1. Remove the system from the box along with all additional parts.
2. These systems do not require much setup. Carefully screw the proper lamp into the socket, refer to lamping instructions on ballast.
3. Hang the fixture using the V-hangers provided.
4. (On/off switch should be in the off position.) Plug the unit into the proper NEMA configured receptacle.
5. Turn the fixture on using the on/off switch. Some systems may not include this feature.

COMPACT FLUORESCENT SETUP:
(SUN SYSTEM® 8 & BRIGHT WING®)
1. See reflector setup section for hanging instructions.
2. Insert the self-ballasted compact fluorescent lamp.
3. Do NOT screw the lamp in by holding onto the glass tubes, hold onto the plastic base to screw the lamp in.
4. If the unit has on/off switches make sure these are in the off position before plugging the system into the outlet.
T5 FLUORESCENT SETUP:
(TEK-LIGHT™, NEW WAVE®, READY FIT® & SUN BLAZE®)
1. Remove the system from the box along with all additional parts.
2. Hang the unit using the eye bolts, V-hangers and jack chain provided (Optional cable hanger systems can be purchased separately).
3. Insert lamps (refer to label on product for correct lamp) into the system. To do this, slide both ends of the lamp into the lamp holders and rotate the lamp 90º in either direction (Fig. 8a). For the Ready Fit® T5 unscrew the water proof protective plastic cover counter clockwise. The protective cover will have to go directly on to the lamp before inserting into the lamp holder (Fig. 8b). Insert lamp and rotate 90º in either direction and slide the water proof protective cover back on and tighten.
4. Some New Wave® & Sun Blaze® models have the capability to be daisy chained together. Do not exceed 7.5 amps on any fixtures chained together. Do not daisy chain more fixtures together than what is specified on the fixture. Chaining more fixtures together than specified will void the warranty on all fixtures.

Fixture Type Max # Chained
Sun Blaze® 22 12
Sun Blaze® 24 6
Sun Blaze® 28 3
Sun Blaze® 42 7
Sun Blaze® 44 3
Sun Blaze® 46 2
Sun Blaze® 48 2
Fixture Type Max # Chained @ 120V Max # Chained @ 240V
New Wave® 28 5 9
New Wave® 44 5 8
New Wave® 48 3 5
REFLECTOR MOUNTING HEIGHTS
A general guideline for the proper hanging height of an H.I.D. lamp would be 12”- 48” depending on wattage (see below). Make sure to check for excessive heat at the top of your plants by placing your hand (palm down) over your plants. If the top of your hand is hot, you need to move your lamp up higher. If the light source is too close to your plants, you can burn them. Remember that as your plants grow you will need to adjust the height of your lamp.
Please keep in mind that the latest air-cooled reflectors, like the Super Sun® 2 allow you to place higher wattage bulbs closer to plants than was possible in the past.
When you raise the light up & away from your plants, you need to be aware that the light levels to your plants will be significantly reduced.
As light moves away from its source (the lamp) it diminishes as follows: 1/Distance2. For example: 1 ft. = 1000 FTC, 2 ft. = 250 FTC, 3 ft. = 111 FTC, 4 ft. = 63 FTC, 5 ft. = 40 FTC, & 6 ft. = 28 FTC (FTC = foot candle).
COVERAGE AREA
A fluorescent fixture can be placed much closer to plants than an H.I.D. fixture because it produces very little heat. You should place your fluorescent lights as close to the tops of your plants as you can without excluding the outside perimeter of your garden.
H.I.D. AVERAGE COVERAGE AREA BY WATTAGE
150/175 watts covers approximately 2’ x 2’ area
250 watts cover approximately 3’ x 3’ area
400 watts covers approximately 4’ x 4’ area
600 watts covers approximately 6.5’ x 6.5’ area
1000 watts covers approximately 8’ x 8’ area
NOTE: Coverage area may be reduced if this is your primary light source.

TROUBLESHOOTING… IF YOUR FIXTURE DOES NOT WORK:
1. CHECK YOUR ELECTRICAL SOURCE: Make sure the unit is plugged in properly and that the breaker is not tripped or fuse blown.
2. CHECK THE LAMP: Make sure the lamp is screwed in all the way.
3. FOR T5 FLUORESCENT FIXTURES: Check to ensure lamps are properly locked into place. This is accomplished by turning the lamps ¼ turn in either direction.
4. Try a different lamp if you have one available. Make sure unit is unplugged when changing lamps.
5. Make sure you have the correct lamp for your ballast, i.e. an HPS lamp will not ignite with a MH ballast.
6. MVP™ (Multi Volt PowerCord): When using a MVP™ plug, only use the one distributed with the unit or purchased at one of our Authorized Retailers. DO NOT make any changes to the Power Cord. This will VOID the warranty.
FAQ’s
Symptom: My ballast is humming but the light isn’t coming on.
Solution: There may be a couple of reasons for this: 1) the lamp is not screwed in tight enough, or 2) the lamp is defective. Please allow 5 – 10 minutes for lamps to initially ignite. If this does not solve the problem, return the unit to the dealer for testing.
Symptom:My ballast makes an excessive amount of noise.
Solution: Keep in mind that the higher the wattage, the louder the humming noise emitted. However, if the noise level is extreme, the transformer may have come loose. In this case, the ballast unit should be returned to Sunlight Supply®, Inc. for repair if it is still under warranty and has been used under normal operating conditions.
Symptom: Every time I turn on the light fixture, the circuit breaker trips.
Solution: You may have too many appliances on this circuit. A normal home’s circuit has only 15 amps available. These H.I.D. lights use up to 10 amps per unit. Please make sure you are not overloading the circuit with too many appliances and/or lights. Note: The sticker on the ballast will state the number of amps required by that particular unit. If you do require more lights/appliances to all be run off the same circuit, you should consult an licensed Electrician.
Symptom: I turned off my HID light and now it won’t come back on.
Solution:Your lamp may take up to 20 minutes to cool down before it can be fired up again. Fluorescent lamps should be almost immediate.
Symptom: My lamp has small pieces of glass inside of it.
Solution:It is common for small pieces of glass to break loose inside the lamps; this will not affect the lamps output. If there is a crack or hole in the outer glass, it should be replaced.

Quick Reference/Conversions
Conversions
1 US gallon is equal to:
4 quarts 128 ounces 768 tsp
8 pints 3.785 liters 8.34 lbs
16 cups 256 tbsp 231 cu. in.
1 cup is equal to:
8 ounces 48 tsp 0.23 liter
1/2 pint 236 ml 14.4 cu.in.
16 tbsp 0.52 lbs 236 grams

1 tablespoon is equal to:
1/2 ounce 3 tsp 15 grams
15 ml 180 drops o.663 cup

1 liter is equal to:
1000 ml 4.328 cups 202.88 tsp
2.164 pints 67.63 tbsp 0.264 gal
1000 grams 2.22 lbs 1.057 quarts

Measurement equivalents
3 tsp = 1 Tbsp 1 ml = 1/5 tsp
2 Tbsp = 1 l uid oz 5 ml = 1 tsp
16 Tbsp = 1 cup 15 ml = 1 Tbsp
2 cups = 1 pint (16 oz) 30 ml = 1 l uid oz
2 pints = 1 quart (32 oz) 240 ml = 1 cup
4 quarts = 1 gal (128 oz) 3840 ml = 1 gal
°F/°C TEMPERATURE CONVERSION
200°C = 392°F 100°C = 212°F 75°C = 167°F 40°C = 104°F
150°C = 302°F 95°C = 203°F 70°C = 158°F 30°C = 86°F
125°C = 257°F 90°C = 194°F 65°C = 149°F 20°C = 68°F
110°C = 230°F 85°C = 185°F 60°C = 140°F 10°C = 50°F
105°C = 221°F 80°C = 176°F 50°C = 122°F 0°C = 32°F

°F/°C TEMPERATURE FORMULA
°C = (°F – 32) x 5/9 °F = (°C x 9/5) + 32
Lighting Conversion
1 footcandle = lumen/ft2

Definitions & Abbreviations
ppm = parts per million
mho = conductivity
mS = millisiemen
uS = microsiemen
tds = total dissolved solids
ec = electrical conductivity
pH = potential hydrogen
Definitions & Abbreviations
C Carbon Mn Mangenese
Ca Calcium Mo Molybdenum
Cl Chlorine N Nitrogen
Cu Copper Na Sodium
Fe Iron O Oxygen
F Fluorine P Phosphorus
H Hydrogen S Sulfur
K Potassium Zn Zinc

1 Siemen = 1000 mS
1 mS = 1000 uS
1 mS = 500 ppm (standard)
1 mS = 650 ppm (horticultural)
1 mg/liter = 1 ppm

Thanks You for ALL the help
https://www.sunlightsupply.com/
http://npk-industries.com/
http://generalhydroponics.com/site/index.php
http://foxfarmfertilizer.com/